Business Letter

Posted: 11 October 2012 in Tugas
  • Definition Business Letter

    Business letters are formal letters used for business-to-business, business-to-client, or client-to-business correspondence. There are a number of elements to a business letter :

Date & Sender’s Address

  • The first line of a business letter should be the date the letter was written or completed. Directly underneath the date is the sender’s address. Do not include the sender’s name here. Sometimes the sender’s address is listed on a letterhead, in which case the address should not be repeated under the date.

Recipient’s Address

  • If known, the recipient’s address should include the name of the person to whom the letter is directed. You should also include a title (Mr., Mrs., Ms., or Dr.) in front of the name. If you are including the country with the address, capitalize the country name.

Salutation

  • The salutation should be the same as the name written with the recipient’s address, followed by a colon. It is fine to only use the first name if you personally know the person and you typically refer to her by her first name. If you do not know the recipient’s name, it is fine to use the salutation, “To Whom it May Concern.”

Body

  • The body of the letter should be formally written. Use single-spaced lines, except between paragraphs, where a double-spaced line should be inserted. The closing paragraph should summarize what was previously stated throughout the letter.

Closing

  • To close the letter, insert a phrase such as “Thank you” or “Best regards,” followed by a comma. Insert four lines between the closing and sender’s name. This space will be used for your signature once the letter is printed.
  • Types of Business Letters

    There are a number of types of business letters in English., which are :

Making An Inquiry

  • Make an inquiry when you are requesting more information about a product or service. This type of business letter tends to include specific information such as product type, as well as asking for further details in the form of brochures, catalogs, telephone contact, etc. Making inquiries can also help you keep up on your competition!

Sales Letters

  • Sales Letters are used to introduce new products to new customers and past clients. It’s important to outline an important problem that needs to be solved and provide the solution in sales letters. This example letter provides an outline, as well as important phrases to use when sending out a wide variety of sales letters.

Replying to an Inquiry

  • Replying to inquiries are one of the most important business letters that you write. Customers who make inquiries are interested in specific information, and are excellent business prospects. Learn how to thank the customers, provide as much information as possible, as well as make a call to action for a positive outcome.

Account Terms and Conditions

  • When a new customer opens an account it is essential to inform them of account terms and conditions. If you run a small business, it is common to provide these terms and conditions in the form of a letter. This guide provides a clear example on which you can base your own business letters providing account terms and conditions.

Letters of Acknowledgment

  • For legal purposes letters of acknowledgment are often requested. These letters are also referred to as letters of receipt and tend to be rather formal and short. These two examples letters will provide you with a template to use in your own work and can be easily adapted for a number of purposes.

Placing an Order

  • As a business person, you will often place an order – especially if you have a large supply chain for your product. This example business letter provides an outline to make sure your order placement is clear so that you receive exactly what you order.

Making a Claim

  • Unfortunately, from time to time it is necessary to make a claim against unsatisfactory work. This example business letter provides a strong example of a claim letter and includes important phrases to express your dissatisfaction and future expectations when making a claim.

Adjusting a Claim

  • Even the best business may make a mistake from time to time. In this case, you may be called upon to adjust a claim. This type of business letter provides an example to send to unsatisfied customers making sure that you address their specific concerns, as well as retain them as future customers.

Cover Letters

  • Cover letters are extremely important when applying for a new position. Cover letters should include a short introduction, highlight the most important information in your resume and elicit a positive response from your prospective employer. These two examples of cover letters are part of a larger section on the site providing all the information you will need on taking an interview in English during your job search.
  • Parts of a Business Letter

The Heading (The Retern Address) or Letterhead

  • Companies usually use printed paper where heading or letterhead is specially designed at the top of the sheet. It bears all the necessary information about the organisation’s identity.

Date

  • Date of writing. The month should be fully spelled out and the year written with all four digits October 12, 2005 (12 October 2005 – UK style). The date is aligned with the return address. The number of the date is pronounced as an ordinal figure, though the endings stndrdth, are often omitted in writing. The article before the number of the day is pronounced but not written. In the body of the letter, however, the article is written when the name of the month is not mentioned with the day.

The Inside Address

  • In a business or formal letter you should give the address of the recipient after your own address. Include the recipient’s name, company, address and postal code. Add job title if appropriate. Separate the recipient’s name and title with a comma. Double check that you have the correct spelling of the recipient ‘s name.
    The Inside Address is always on the left margin. If an 8 1/2″ x 11″ paper is folded in thirds to fit in a standard 9″ business envelope, the inside address can appear through the window in the envelope.

The Greeting

  • Also called the salutation. The type of salutation depends on your relationship with the recipient. It normally begins with the word “Dear” and always includes the person’s last name. Use every resource possible to address your letter to an actual person. If you do not know the name or the sex of of your reciever address it to Dear Madam/Sir (or Dear Sales Manager or Dear Human Resources Director). As a general rule the greeting in a business letter ends in a colon (US style). It is also acceptable to use a comma (UK style).

The Subject Line (optional)

  • Its inclusion can help the recipient in dealing successfully with the aims of your letter. Normally the subject sentence is preceded with the word Subject: orRe: Subject line may be emphasized by underlining, using bold font, or all captial letters. It is usually placed one line below the greeting but alternatively can be located directly after the “inside address,” before the “greeting.”

The Body Paragraphs

  • The body is where you explain why you’re writing. It’s the main part of the business letter. Make sure the receiver knows who you are and why you are writing but try to avoid starting with “I”. Use a new paragraph when you wish to introduce a new idea or element into your letter. Depending on the letter style you choose, paragraphs may be indented. Regardless of format, skip a line between paragraphs.

The Complimentary Close

  • This short, polite closing ends always with a comma. It is either at the left margin or its left edge is in the center, depending on the Business Letter Style that you use. It begins at the same column the heading does. The traditional rule of etiquette in Britain is that a formal letter starting “Dear Sir or Madam” must end “Yours faithfully”, while a letter starting “Dear ” must end “Yours sincerely”. (Note: the second word of the closing is NOT capitalized)

Signature and Writer’s identification

  • The signature is the last part of the letter. You should sign your first and last names. The signature line may include a second line for a title, if appropriate. The signature should start directly above the first letter of the signature line in the space between the close and the signature line. Use blue or black ink.

Initials, Enclosures, Copies

  • Initials are to be included if someone other than the writer types the letter. If you include other material in the letter, put ‘Enclosure’, ‘Enc.’, or ‘ Encs. ‘, as appropriate, two lines below the last entry. cc means a copy or copies are sent to someone else.
  • Style Letters Of Business

               1. Profesional Style Letter Business

Description
1.the heading (the retern address) or letterhead – companies usually use printed paper where heading or letterhead is specially designed at the top of the sheet. it bears all the necessary information about the organisation’s identity..
2. Date: Type the date of your letter two to six lines below the letterhead. Three are standard. If there is no letterhead, type it where shown
3. inside Address: If your stationery has a letterhead, skip this. Otherwise, type your name, address and optionally, phone number. These days, it’s common to also include an email address.
4. . Salutation: Type the recipient’s name here. Type Mr. or Ms. [Last Name] to show respect, but don’t guess spelling or gender. Some common salutations are
* Ladies:
* Gentlemen:
* Dear Sir:
* Dear Sir or Madam:
* Dear [Full Name]:
* To Whom it May Concern:
5. Body: Type two spaces between sentences. Keep it brief and to the point.
6. Complimentary Close: What you type here depends on the tone and degree of formality. For example,
* Respectfully yours (very formal)
* Sincerely (typical, less formal)
* Very truly yours (polite, neutral)
* Cordially yours (friendly, informal)
7. Signature Block: Leave four blank lines after the Complimentary Close (11) to sign your name. Sign your name exactly as you type it below your signature. Title is optional depending on relevancy and degree of formality. Examples are
* John Doe, Manager
* P. Smith
Director, Technical Support
* R. T. Jones – Sr. Field Engineer
8. Identification Initials: If someone typed the letter for you, he or she would typically include three of your initials in all uppercase characters, then two of his or hers in all lowercase characters. If you typed your own letter, just skip it since your name is already in the Signature Block (12). Common styles are below.
• JAD/cm
• JAD:cm
• clm

               2. Standart Letter Business

Description

1. Address: if your stationery has a letterhead, skip this. Otherwise, type your name, address and optionally, phone number. These days, it’s common to also include an email address
.
2. Title – companies usually use printed paper where heading or letterhead is specially designed at the top of the sheet. it bears all the necessary information about the organisation’s identity

3. Attention Type the recipient’s name here. Type Mr. or Ms. [Last Name] to show respect, but don’t guess spelling or gender. Some common salutations are
* Ladies:
* Gentlemen:
* Dear Sir:
* Dear Sir or Madam:
* Dear [Full Name]:
* To Whom it May Concern:

4. Initials : If someone typed the letter for you, he or she would typically include three of your initials in all uppercase characters, then two of his or hers in all lowercase characters. If you typed your own letter, just skip it since your name is already in the Signature Block (12). Common styles are below.
• JAD/cm
• JAD:cm
• clm

               3. Semi Block Letters Of Business

Description

SEMI BLOCK STYLE
[YOUR NAME]
[STREET • CITY • STATE • ZIP CODE] (1)
[PHONE # • FAX PHONE # • MESSAGES PHONE # • EMAIL]

&NB SP; &NB SP; &NB SP; &NB SP; &NB SP; [DATE TODAY] (2)

RE: [TO WHAT THIS LETTER REFERS] (3)
[CERTIFIED MAIL] (4)
[PERSONAL] (5)
[RECIPIENT’S NAME] &NB SP; (6)
[COMPANY NAME]
[ADDRESS]
[ADDRESS]
ATTENTION [RECIPIENT’S NAME] (7)
DEAR [RECIPIENT’S NAME] (8)
[SUBJECT] (9)
THE MAIN CHARACTERISTIC OF MODIFIED BLOCK BUSINESS LETTERS IS THAT EVERYTHING IS FLUSH WITH THE LEFT MARGIN, EXCEPT AS SHOWN. MODIFIED BLOCK LETTERS ARE A LITTLE LESS FORMAL THAN FULL BLOCK LETTERS. (10)
IF YOUR LETTER IS ONLY ONE PAGE, TYPE THE COMPLIMENTARY CLOSE AND OPTIONAL COMPONENTS AS SHOWN BELOW. OTHERWISE, TYPE THEM ON THE LAST PAGE OF YOUR LETTER.
&NB SP; &NB SP; &NB SP; &NB SP; &NB SP; &NB SP; &NB SP; &NB SP; &NB SP; SINCERELY, (11)

&NB SP; &NB SP; &NB SP; &NB SP; &NB SP; &NB SP; &NB SP; &NB SP; &NB SP; &NB SP; [SIGNATURE] (12)
&NB SP; &NB SP; &NB SP; [YOUR NAME, TITLE]
[IDENTIFICATION INITIALS] (13)
ENCLOSURES: [NUMBER] (14)

CC: [NAME FOR COPY] &NB SP; (15)
[NAME FOR COPY]

               4. Full Block Letter Of Business

Description

1. Return Address: If your stationery has a letterhead, skip this. Otherwise, type your name, address and optionally, phone number. These days, it’s common to also include an email address.
2. Date: Type the date of your letter two to six lines below the letterhead. Three are standard. If there is no letterhead, type it where shown.
3. Reference Line: If the recipient specifically requests information, such as a job reference or invoice number, type it on one or two lines, immediately below the Date (2). If you’re replying to a letter, refer to it here. For example,
• Re: Job # 625-01
• Re: Your letter dated 1/1/200x.
4. Special Mailing Notations: Type in all uppercase characters, if appropriate. Examples include
• SPECIAL DELIVERY
• CERTIFIED MAIL
• AIRMAIL
5. On-Arrival Notations: Type in all uppercase characters, if appropriate. You might want to include a notation on private correspondence, such as a resignation letter. Include the same on the envelope. Examples are
• PERSONAL
• CONFIDENTIAL
6. Inside Address: Type the name and address of the person and/or company to whom you’re sending the letter, three to eight lines below the last component you typed. Four lines are standard. If you type an Attention Line (7), skip the person’s name here. Do the same on the envelope.
7. Attention Line: Type the name of the person to whom you’re sending the letter. If you type the person’s name in the Inside Address (6), skip this. Do the same on the envelope.
8. Salutation: Type the recipient’s name here. Type Mr. or Ms. [Last Name] to show respect, but don’t guess spelling or gender. Some common salutations are
• Ladies:
• Gentlemen:
• Dear Sir:
• Dear Sir or Madam:
• Dear [Full Name]:
• To Whom it May Concern:
9. Subject Line: Type the gist of your letter in all uppercase characters, either flush left or centered. Be concise on one line. If you type a Reference Line (3), consider if you really need this line. While it’s not really necessary for most employment-related letters, examples are below.
• SUBJECT: RESIGNATION
• LETTER OF REFERENCE
• JOB INQUIRY
10. Body: Type two spaces between sentences. Keep it brief and to the point.
11. Complimentary Close: What you type here depends on the tone and degree of formality. For example,
• Respectfully yours (very formal)
• Sincerely (typical, less formal)
• Very truly yours (polite, neutral)
• Cordially yours (friendly, informal)
12. Signature Block: Leave four blank lines after the Complimentary Close (11) to sign your name. Sign your name exactly as you type it below your signature. Title is optional depending on relevancy and degree of formality. Examples are
• John Doe, Manager
• P. Smith
Director, Technical Support
• R. T. Jones – Sr. Field Engineer
13. Identification Initials: If someone typed the letter for you, he or she would typically include three of your initials in all uppercase characters, then two of his or hers in all lowercase characters. If you typed your own letter, just skip it since your name is already in the Signature Block (12). Common styles are below.
• JAD/cm
• JAD:cm
• clm
14. Enclosure Notation: This line tells the reader to look in the envelope for more. Type the singular for only one enclosure, plural for more. If you don’t enclose anything, skip it. Common styles are below.
• Enclosure
• Enclosures: 3
• Enclosures (3)
15. cc: Stands for courtesy copies (formerly carbon copies). List the names of people to whom you distribute copies, in alphabetical order. If addresses would be useful to the recipient of the letter, include them. If you don’t copy your letter to anyone, skip it.

               5. Block Style Letters Of Business

Description

1. Heading: Type the recipient’s name, page number, and Date and Reference Line from page 1. Type the heading across the page as shown, or type it flush with the left margin as in a full block letter. If you don’t know the recipient’s name, type the same thing as you did in the Inside Address on page 1; e.g., the company name.
2. Body: Indent the first sentence in paragraphs five spaces. Type two spaces between sentences. Keep it brief and to the point.
3. Complimentary Close: Type this five spaces to the right of center as shown on page 1, or right justify it with the date if you typed the Heading (1) across the page, as shown above. What you type here depends on the tone and degree of formality. For example,

* Respectfully yours (very formal)
* Sincerely (typical, less formal)
* Very truly yours (polite, neutral)
* Cordially yours (friendly, informal)

4. Signature Block: Leave four blank lines after the Complimentary Close (3) to sign your name. Sign your name exactly as you type it below your signature. Title is optional depending on relevancy and degree of formality. Examples are

* John Doe, Manager
* P. Smith
Director, Technical Support
* R. T. Jones – Sr. Field Engineer

5. Identification Initials: If someone typed the letter for you, he or she would typically include three of your initials in all uppercase characters, then two of his or hers in all lowercase characters. If you typed it, just skip it since your name is already in the Signature Block (4). Common styles are below.

* JAD/cm
* JAD:cm
* clm

6. Enclosure Notation: This line tells the reader to look in the envelope for more documents. Type the singular for only one enclosure, plural for more. If you don’t enclose anything, skip it. Common styles are below.

* Enclosure
* Enclosures: 3
* Enclosures (3)

7. cc: Stands for courtesy copies (formerly carbon copies). List the names of people to whom you distribute copies, in alphabetical order. If addresses would be useful to the recipient of the letter, include them. If you don’t copy your letter to anyone, skip it.

Antara Poskota dan Kompas

Posted: 9 January 2012 in Tugas

Sumber 1: http://www.poskota.co.id/berita-terkini/2011/12/14/satpam-incar-peremuan-untuk-dijambret

Sumber 2: http://megapolitan.kompas.com/read/2011/12/18/19190437/Penanggung.Jawab.M-26.Menghilang.Pasca-Penemuan.Angkot.

Sekarang ini banyak sekali diantara kita yang seringkali melakukan kesalahan dalam membuat sebuah tulisan, baik itu dari segi bahasanya, tanda baca, dll. Kesalahan itupun dilakukan tidak hanya dilakukan oleh kita orang awam yang memang tidak bekerja di bidang penulisan ataupun percetakan, tetapi juga dilakukan oleh kalangan profesional yang memang bekerja dibidang tulis menulis seperti jurnalis, penulis, dll. Dalam hal ini saya ingin membandingkan dua artikel yang berbeda dari dua sumber yang berbeda yaitu pertama artikel yang berasal dari koran online poskota dan yang kedua dari koran online kompas. Pertama saya akan coba membahas artikel yang ada pada koran poskota terlebih dahulu, dimana pada salah satu artikelnya yang berjudul ” Satpam Incar Peremuan Untuk Dijambret”. Pada awal penulisan judul artikel sudah terjadi kesalahan penulisan pada kata peremuan yang mungkin dimaksud oleh penulis adalah “perempuan”. Lalu kesalahan yang berikutnya terjadi pada paragraf 2 baris kedua, penulis melakukan kesalahan pada penulisan kata “Beruntung” yang menggunakan huruf besar. Dalam artikel ini terjadi banyak kesalahan dalam penulisannya salah satu contohnya lagi pada paragraf ke 6 baris ke 1 kesalahan pada kata “mengincap” mungkin maksudnya adalah “mengincar”.

Lain halnya, penulisan pada koran online kompas terlihat lebih rapi dan teratur dalam hal segi bahasa, penulisan dan tanda bacanya. Pada artikel koran kompas yang saya coba saya bahas ini tidak banyak kesalahan yang dilakukan oleh penulisnya, jadi tidak banyak yang saya komentari mengenai artikel ini.

kesimpulan: Pada kedua artikel diatas terjadi perbedaan mendasar pada penulisannya dari tulisan, bahasa yang digunakan dan tanda bacanya. Hal ini mungkin dikarenakan penulis kurang memahami atau mungkin kurang ke hati – hati dalam menggunakan tanda baca dan bahasa yang dipakainya dan mungkin juga karena kedua koran ini memiliki pangsa pasar yang berbeda dalam pemasarannya, dimana poskota lebih memilih pasar kalangan menengah kebawah sehingga kurang memperhatikan segi bahasanya.

Cara Menginstal Xilinx

Posted: 29 October 2011 in Tugas

Apabila mengisntal menggunakan CD Driver, maka pertama-tama masukkan CD Driver Xilinx ISE 9.2i tersebut ke dalam CD ROM. Maka muncullah gambar seperti ini :

Maka pilihlah Setup sesuai pada gambar diatas (double klik). Klik Next seperti pada gambar dibawah :

Sesudah klik next, masukkan serial number. Lihat serial numbernya ada di folder SerialNumber.

CheckList pada kolom Accept lalu Next

CheckList lagi dan Next lagi

Kemudian CheckList dan Next lagi untuk menyetujui

Pilih Directory ingin menyimpan dimana Aplikasi Xilinx ini, misalnya Drive C dan pilih Xilin ISE 9.2i. Lalu Next

ChecList semua pada Select Installation Options. Lalu Next

CheckList semua dan Next

CheckList dan Next lagi

Klik Instal untuk memulai menginstal Software Xilinx ISE 9.2i

Maka akan berjalan proses instalasi Xilinx ISE 9.2i. Tunggu sampai selesai

Ketika proses instalasi sudah selesai, maka jadilah Xilinx ISE 9.2i di komputer anda

Selesai sudah langkah-langkah cara menginstal Xilinx ISE 9.2i ini, semoga bermanfaat untuk semua.

Mohon maaf apabila ada kekeliruan.

Terimakasih.

KARIKATUR KONGRES PSSI

Posted: 29 October 2011 in Tugas

Karikatur adalah suatu gambar yang mengilustrasikan suatu kejadian dalam bentuk kartun yang sengaja digambar. Contoh karikatur yang saya ambil adalah tentang masalah perebutan kursi Ketua Umum PSSI.

 Gambar yang ada disamping ini adalah suatu sindiran kepada ketua umum PSSI yaitu Bpk. Nurdin Halid yang konon tidak mau menyerahkan kekuasaannya pada calon ketua PSSI yang lainnya, akibat dari tindakkannya semua lapisan masyarakat mengencam terutama para pencinta sepak bola Indonesia karena semua masyarakat menginginkan revolusi di persepak bolaan Indonesia.

  Dan menginginkan Pasukan Garuda Indonesia dapat menjuarai semua laga sepak bola di tingkat internasional dan mengharumkan nama bangsa lewat bidang Persepak Bolaan Nasional. Samapai sekarang pun perebutan kursi ketua umum PSSI makin memanas, demo pun marak diaksikan di seluruh wilayah indonesia untuk menuntut ketua PSSI periode 2007-2011 untuk memberikan kursi kekuasaannya pada calon yang lainnya.
Diantara nama-nama calon ketua PSSI adalah:
* Nurdin Halid
* Nirwan Bakrie
* Arifin Panigoro
* George Toisuta
cuma dua nama yang lolos dalam pemilihan ketua PSSI dan 2 nama lainnya tidak lolos dan pemilihan ketua PSSI periode 2011-2015 dengan alasan yaitu:
~ Pernah terjun ke laga sepak bolaan minimal 5 tahun
~ Tidak ada catatan kriminal
diatas adalah alasan yang diterima oleh 2 orang calon yang mendaftarkan dirinya sebagai ketua PSSI.

Tugas Pemrograman Multimedia

Posted: 19 March 2013 in Tugas
Tags:

Pengertian Broadcasting – Broadcasting secara umum dapat diartikan sebagai siaran atau penyiaran. Di awal tahun 2000-an industri broadcasting mulai berkembang di Indonesia secara signifikan walaupun wadah/peluang untuk orang-orang broadcasting sampai saat ini belum terlalu. Broadcasting adalah cabang dari ilmu komunikasi yang berhubungan dengan penyiaran. Di dalam broadcasting sendiri sebenarnya yang paling dominan dikaji adalah bagaimana membuat konten sebuah siaran mulai dari praproduksi- produksi-pascaproduksi, jadi bukan hanya belajar secara teori saja namun di broadcasting mempelajari praktik bagaimana membuat sebuah tayangan/ konten yang menarik dan enak dilihat atau didengar, atau menurut teori ilmu komunikasi, bagaimana pesan yang disampaikan sampai kepada khalayak ramai/umum.

Karakteristik broadcasting antara lain: memberi informasi, mendidik dan menghibur. Broadcasting secara harfiah adalah proses pengiriman sinyal/pesan ke berbagai lokasi secara bersamaan baik melalui satelit, radio, televisi, komunikasi data pada jaringan dan lain sebagainya. Sedangkan menurut UU Penyiaran No. 32 tahun 2002 penjelasan tentang dunia broadcast terbagi menjadi 2 yakni siaran (broadcast: kamus bahasa inggris) dan penyiaran (broadcasting: kamus bahasa inggris) yang masing-masing memiliki definisi sendiri-sendiri. Siaran adalah pesan atau rangkaian pesan dalam bentuk suara, gambar, atau suara dan gambar atau yang berbentuk grafis, karakter, baik yang bersifat interaktif maupun tidak, yang dapat diterima melalui perangkat penerima siaran. Penyiaran adalah kegiatan pemancarluasan siaran melalui sarana pemancaran dan/atau sarana transmisi di darat, di laut atau di antariksa dengan menggunakan spektrum frekuensi radio melalui udara, kabel, dan/atau media lainnya untuk dapat diterima secara serentak dan bersamaan oleh masyarakat dengan perangkat penerima siaran. SEKILAS BROADCASTING TELEVISI Gambar televisi pertama muncul pada tahun 1920 di Amerika serikat, sedangkan bentuk pesawat televisi pertama muncul di sebuah pameran New York World’s Fair di tahun 1939 dengan ukuran tv 8 x 10 inch. Sistem televisi elektris sendiri diciptakan oleh Vladimir Katajev Zworykin dan dikembangkan lagi pada tahun 1930 oleh Philo T. Fransworth. Jika dilihat dari sejarahnya dunia broadcast tv yang berkembang pesat tentu memang adalah Negara Amerika dan Negara- negara Eropa sampai hari ini. Namun munculnya TV swasta di tahun 1990-an di Indonesia membuat kebijakan pemerintah mengenai televisi berubah secara mendasar, dimana monopoli siaran televisi tidak terulang kembali. Kini sejak era siaran tv swasta semarak perkembangan dunia broadcasting tv pun semakin maju terutama di pertelevisian Indonesia yang jika disimpulkan tv di Indonesia terbagi atas empat yakni: Televisi Negara/ Pemerintah, Televisi Swasta, Televisi Komunitas, Televisi Berlangganan. Keempatnya mempunyai potensi untuk berkembang dan menjadi sarana penyampaian informasi, hiburan dan pendidikan. Namun demikian setiap televisi mengadakan siaran dengan berbagai macam jenis program acara baik drama, nondrama dan news. Di tahun 2003 secara serentak tv swasta nasional bermunculan, hal ini tentu membutuhkan program acara yang semakin banyak pula. Nah, pola inilah yang membentuk dituntutnya tenaga- tenaga ahli (kreatif ) yang mampu membuat program acara televisi secara simultan dan kontinu, sebab televisi tanpa program acara tidak akan pernah ada siaran televisi.

Pengertian Entertainment
Entertainment/Hiburan adalah segala sesuatu, baik yang berbentuk kata-kata, tempat, benda maupun perilaku yang dapat menjadi penghibur atau pelipur hati yang susah atau sedih. Hiburan bersifat subjektif, bergantung pada penikmatnya. Apabila subjek tersebut merasa terhibur terhadap sesuatu hal, maka hal itu dapat dikatakan suatu hiburan.
Berdasarkan pengertian di atas, dapat disimpulkan bahwa hiburan mencakup banyak hal, diantaranya musik, film, opera, drama, permainan, olahraga, dan lain sebagainya. Berwisata juga dapat dikatakan sebagai upaya hiburan dengan menjelajahi alam ataupun mempelajari budaya. Mengisi kegiatan di waktu senggang seperti membuat kerajinan, keterampilan, membaca juga dapat dikatagorikan sebagai hiburan. Media yang digunakan dalam dunia entertaiment, yaitu:
1. Televisi;
2. Radio;
3. Media cetak; dan
4. Media online.

Pengertian Research and development
Menurut Borg and Gall, educational research and development is a process used to develop and validate educational product. Penelitian dan pengembangan pendidikan adalah sebuah proses yang digunakan untuk mengembangkan dan memvalidasi produk pendidikan.
Penelitian Pengembangan juga diartikan sebagai suatu proses atau langkah-langkah untuk mengembangkan suatu produk baru atau menyempurnakan produk yang telah ada yang dapat dipertanggung jawabkan.
Menurut L.R. Gay, penelitian dan pengembangan adalah suatu usaha untukmengembangkan suatu produk yang efektif untuk digunakan sekolah, dan bukanuntuk menguji teori. Selanjutnya, penelitian pengembangan didefinisikan sebagai suatu pengkajian sistematik terhadap pendesainan, pengembangan dan evaluasi program, proses dan produk pembelajaran yang harus memenuhi kriteria validitas, kepraktisan, dan efektifitas. Sejalan dengan hal tersebut, Richey and Klein mengemukakan bahwa pengembangan adalah proses penerjemahan spesifikasi desain ke dalam bentuk fisik yang berkaitan dengan desain belajar sistematik, pengembangan dan evaluasi memproses dengan maksud menetapkan dasar empiris untuk mengkreasikan produk pembelajaran dan non-pembelajaran yang baru atau model peningkatan pengembangan yang sudah ada. Untuk dapat menghasilkan produk tertentu digunakan penelitian yang bersifat analisis kebutuhan dan untuk menguji keefektifan produk tersebut agar dapat berfungsi di masyarakat luas maka diperlukan penelitian untuk menguji keefektifan produk tersebut.
Metode penelitian dan pengembangan juga didefinisikan sebagai suatu metode penelitian yang digunakan untuk menghasilkan produk tertentu, dan menguji keefektifan produk tersebut.
Berdasarkan pendapat beberapa ahli di atas, dapat dipahami bahwa penelitian dan pengembangan (R&D) adalah suatu proses kajian sistematik untuk mengembangkan dan memvalidasi produk yang digunakan dalam pendidikan. Produk yang dikembangkan/dihasilkan antara lain berupa bahan pelatihan untuk guru, materi ajar, media pembelajaran, soal-soal, dan sistem pengelolaan dalam pembelajaran.
Dalam bidang pendidikan, produk-produk yang dihasilkan melalui penelitian R&D diharapkan dapat meningkatkan produktivitas pendidikan. Produk tersebut tidak selalu berbentuk benda atau perangkat keras (hardware), seperti buku, modul, alat bantu pembelajaran di kelas atau di laboratorium, tetapi bisa juga perangkat lunak (software),seperti program komputer untuk pengolahan data, pembelajaran di kelas, perpustakaan atau laboratorium, ataupun model-model pendidikan, pembelajaran, pelatihan, bimbingan, evaluasi, manajemen, dll.
Selanjutnya Borg and Gall menjelaskan empat ciri utama dalam penelitian dan pengembangan, yaitu:
1. Studying research findings pertinent to the product to be develop
Artinya, melakukan studi atau penelitian awal untuk mencari temuan-temuan penelitian terkait dengan produk yang akan dikembangkan.
2. Developing the product base on this findings
Artinya, mengembangkan produk berdasarkan temuan penelitian tersebut.
3. Field testing it in the setting where it will be used eventually
Artinya, dilakukannya uji lapangan dalam seting atau situasi senyatanya dimana produk tersebut nantinya digunakan.
4. Revising it to correct the deficiencies found in the field-testing stage.
Artinya, melakukan revisi untuk memperbaiki kelemahan-kelemahan yang ditemukan dalam tahap-tahap uji lapangan.
Dari empat ciri utama R&D tersebut, memberikan gambaran bahwa ciri utama R&D adalah adanya langkah-langkah penelitian awal tekait dengan produk yang akan dikembangkan. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian tersebut kemudian produk pendidikan dirancang dan dikembangkan untuk kemudian diuji dan diperbaiki/direvisi.

Arrange Complete Bussiness Letter

Image  —  Posted: 2 December 2012 in Tugas

Inquiry Letter

Posted: 2 December 2012 in Tugas
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Definition of inqury letter

A letter of request, also known as a letter or letters of interesting candidates, will be sent to the companies. Letter of request is a letter from a prospective buyer to the seller requesting information about the products offered. With the offer of the seller will potential buyers will know the price, and the sale and purchase, and a description of the goods or services to be purchased. This is the purpose of the prospective buyer a written request to the seller.
When a prospective buyer has to know the condition of the goods / services following the price and terms of sale and purchase, of course he did not need to ask for a quote from the seller. Letter of inquiry required in formal trade demand formal procedures in writing. Letter of inquiry is often an early stage of the business transactions. Through a letter of inquiry to ask a potential buyer or to request information about the goods or services to be purchased. In reaction, the seller explained the things he wanted to know the buyer, the buyer did finally order and business transactions as the top buying and selling process.

Six tips for writing an inquiry letter:

• Begin your letter by stating who you are and giving your status or
position.
• Clearly state what it is that you are inquiring about and what you would
like the recipient of your letter to do. Make your inquiry as specific as
possible.
• You might want to briefly explain the purpose of your letter or what you
hope to accomplish.
• Include the date by which you need the information, services, etc. that you
are requesting, and indicate that you await the reader’s response.
• Thank the person for his/her time.
Elements of

Elements of Business Letter:

1. Sender’s Address and Date- give the following information: house number,
street, area code, place, country, telephone.
• Sender’s address below the date:
2. Recipient’s Address- starts two lines below the sender’s address.
3. Salutation in a Business Letter
A: If you know the person’s name:
B: If you don’t know the person’s name:
C: Punctuation: Use colon
4. Subject Line – English, the subject line can also be placed
between the recipient’s address and the salutation
(with a blank line in between).
5. Body of the letter- Capitalize and indent the first word of the
text. The next text is left justified. And a space is put
after each paragraph.
CONTENT:
A: 1st paragraph – Introduction and reason for writing.
B: Following paragraphs – Explain the reason in details
and background information, etc.
C: Last paragraph – Summarize your reasons and make
clear what you want the recipient to do.
6. Greeting in Business letter: Use “sincerely”. Write the greeting two lines
below the last paragraph. Leave 4 blank lines after the greeting (space for
the signature) and write the sender’s name below that space.

Example of inquiry letter

The Virtual Community Group, Inc.
17 Park Road
Rural Town, NH
January 2, 2011
Jane Smith, Executive Director
Xavier Foundation
555 S. Smith St.
Washington, D.C. 22222
Dear Ms. Smith,
I am writing to inquire whether the Xavier Foundation would invite a proposal from the Virtual Community Group, Inc., requesting an investment of $50,000 per year over two years to support our Enterprise 2000 initiative. This grant would provide part of the funds needed for us to train at least 1200 low-income entrepreneurs in rural New Hampshire in the computer skills they need to create sustainable businesses as we enter the twenty-first century. Your literature indicates that the Xavier Foundation is searching for innovative ideas to improve the lives of the rural poor; we believe Enterprise 2000 falls well within your area of interest.
Information technologies are a promising solution to one of the primary obstacles facing the small rural enterprise: the geographic distances which inhibit networking with other businesses, and which segregate them from a larger marketplace. The Internet and other networks are now making it possible for entrepreneurs even in the most remote locations to communicate and do business on a region-wide, national, or even international basis. Working in conjunction with other organizations, Enterprise 2000 gives program participants technical skills training adapted to individual need; and, in collaboration with organizations which recondition and redistribute used computers, we also assure that they obtain the necessary computer hardware, at low or no cost.
We believe that broadly-implemented technical skills programs such as Enterprise 2000 have the potential to transform the lives of many struggling entrepreneurs, and change the economic landscape of impoverished rural communities. Unlike many poverty alleviation initiatives, all of the Virtual Community Group programs are predicated on the assumption that these entrepreneurs already have 90% of what it takes to compete in the marketplace — intelligence, ambition, initiative, and talent. After two years of experimentation and program development, the Virtual Community Group has fashioned a superb, easily replicable model in Enterprise 2000, and established a high degree of credibility among community groups, policy makers, and funders. With your support, we can make that 10% difference in the lives of these hard-working people and the future of our rural communities.
Please feel free to call me with any questions. I look forward to hearing from you soon.
Sincerely,
Executive Director
(This sample letter of inquiry was created for AGM by Molly Clark Associates.)
Example reply of inqury letter
Dear Sirs
Yours enquiry of dec,12th,  which we welcome, is receiving our attention, and we thank you for your interest in our products.
A copy of our illustrated export catalogue will be sent to you today, together with a range of samples of the various skins used in the manufacture of gloves and shoes. We think the colors will be just what you want for the fashionable trade, and the beauty and elegance of our designs, coupled with the superb workmanship, should appeal to the discriminating buyer.
Our representative, Mr, Fiel, will be in New York next week and lie will be pleased to call on you with a full range of samples of our handmade lines. He is authorized to discuss the terms of an order with you or to negotiate a contact.
It will be a pleasure to serve you.
Yours faithfully
sumber : http://cyberu-finch.blogspot.com/2012/11/inquiry-letter.html
                   http://bagaskawarasan.wordpress.com/2012/11/11/inquiry-letter/

                   http://raqheelcaze.wordpress.com
http://www.english-bell.com

Hanya bermodalkan notepad😀
berikut tutorialnya :

1. Buka notepad
2. Salin kode berikut ke notepad

Code:
Windows Registry Editor Version 5.00

[HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Yahoo\pager\Locale]
"Enable Messenger Ad"=dword:00000000

3. Kemudian pilih save dengan nama Remove_ads.reg [pastikan pilih file type “all files”]

4. Setelah save klik 2x file yg dibuat tadi dan pilih yes.

5. Restart Komputer

Jika masih tidak hilang, berati saatnya gunakan metode HOSTS

1. Buka folder %systemroot%\system32\drivers\etc
2. Klik kanan file HOSTS -> properties -> pastikan pilihan “Read only” dihilangkan ceklist dan OK
3. Buka file HOSTS dgn notepad
4. tambahkan ini ke baris paling bawah

Code:
127.0.0.1 insider.msg.yahoo.com

5. Save dan close
6. Restart Komputer

 

Tested in YM 11.0 dan 11.5🙂

Today when I run an old tool on my x64 win7, following error message is displayed:

Component ‘COMDLG32.OCX’ or one of its dependencies is not correctly registered: a file is missing or invalid.

 

Here is how to resolve comdlg32.ocx missing error.

  1. Download comdlg32.zip and extract comdlg32.ocx from zip file
  2. Move comdlg32.ocx to c:\Windows\system32 folder. For 64bit Vista/Win7, move comdlg32.ocx to c:\Windows\SysWOW64
  3. Open a command line window and run following command:regsvr32 c:\Windows\system32\comdlg32.ocx

    Note: a) On 64bit Vista/Win7, run this command instead:

    regsvr32 c:\Windows\SysWOW64\comdlg32.ocx

    b) For Vista/Win7 with UAC turn on, the above command needs to be run from elevated command prompt.

  4. Once comdlg32 is registered successfully, following message will prompt, DllRegisterServer in C:\WINDOWS\System32\comdlg32.ocx succeeded.
  5. Now launch the application again you should not see file missing error.

Update: Important note if you use WIN7: when registering comdlg32.ocx, it must be done as administrator, or regsvr32.exe will fail with error 0x8002801c.

To do this as administrator, Go to ‘All Programs -> Accessories -> Command Prompt’, right click on ‘Command Prompt’ icon, and click on ‘Run as administrator’ to start a command prompt, then run the regsvr32 command